LIVING WITH CROWN GALL:The following is a series of photos taken in mid-January, 2001. A block of 25 Sangiovese vines planted in 1994 showed poor growth compared to the neighboring blocks. All have some level of crown gall damage and on-going disease presumably magnified by the continuing stress of crown gall. Symptoms included, poor fruiting cane growth, signs of Eutypia , black goo-like excretion from pruning wounds, discoloration within the vasculature and V-shaped indentations on the older trunks and canes. The vines however continue to put out renewal canes and/or respond to pruning out of the infected wood.


 The vine in the foreground is the last one in the infected block. Vines are trellised with a modified ballerina system where there are three fruiting zones, with renewals coming from old, established "antlers". Note also that the rows have all been sub-soiled on each side of the vines this winter.


Crown gall evident on the left (dead) trunk that has been replaced by two "healthy" trunks. Also evident is the V-shaped indentation on the surviving trunks.
This vine was planted in 1994 and showed evidence of crown gall in the second year. It was allowed to renew and has survived, not without stress, and has cropped well enough. (Sangiovese has too many clusters that are very large, thus even a modest crop on another variety, can be too much on these vines! During the winter pruning, vine weakness was readily noted as shown below. The renewal zone has failed to grow and cutting into the arm, demonstrated the presence of a dead zone within the cane indicating an infection in the previous season. The renewal zone was therefore moved back until clean tissue was noted